Deep Learning

Deep Learning is a branch of machine learning that involves layering algorithms in an effort to gain greater understanding of the data. The algorithms are no longer limited to create an explainable set of relationships as would a more basic regression. Instead, deep learning relies on these layers of non-linear algorithms to create distributed representations that interact based on a series of factors. Given large sets of training data, deep learning algorithms begin to be able to identify the relationships between elements. These relationships may be between shapes, colors, words, and more. From this, the system can then be used to create predictions. Within machine learning and artificial intelligence, the power of deep learning stems from the system being able to identify more relationships than humans could practically code in software, or relationships that humans may not even be able to perceive. After sufficient training, this allows the network of algorithms to begin to make predictions or interpretations of very complex data.

use a cascade of many layers of nonlinear processing units for feature extraction and transformation. Each successive layer uses the output from the previous layer as input. The algorithms may be supervised or unsupervised and applications include pattern analysis (unsupervised) and classification (supervised).
are based on the (unsupervised) learning of multiple levels of features or representations of the data. Higher level features are derived from lower level features to form a hierarchical representation.
are part of the broader machine learning field of learning representations of data.
learn multiple levels of representations that correspond to different levels of abstraction; the levels form a hierarchy of concepts.

Natural language processing

Natural language processing (NLP) is a field of computer science, artificial intelligence and computational linguistics concerned with the interactions between computers and human (natural) languages, and, in particular, concerned with programming computers to fruitfully process large natural language corpora. Challenges in natural language processing frequently involve natural language understanding, natural language generation (frequently from formal, machine-readable logical forms), connecting language and machine perception, managing human-computer dialog systems, or some combination thereof.