Solaris Interview point 2

1) What is Sun Solaris?
Solaris is a Unix operating system originally developed by Sun Microsystems. It superseded their earlier SunOS in
1993. Oracle Solaris, as it is now known, has been owned by Oracle Corporation since Oracle’s acquisition of Sun
in January 2010.

2) Change to a directory, which is having very long name ?
– cd CDMA_3X_GEN*Here original directory name is . .CDMA_3X_GENERATION_DATA..

3) Display the Disk Usage of file sizes under each directory in current Directory ?
– du ­k * | sort .nr (or) du .k . | sort ­nr

4) Display the last newly appending lines of a file during appendingdata to the same file by some
processes ?
– tail .f Debug.logHere tail shows the newly appended data into Debug.log by some processes/user.
5) Search for a sample string in particular files?
– grep .Debug. *.confHere grep uses the string .Debug. to search in all files with extension..conf. under current
directory.

6) Delete blank lines in a file?
– cat sample.txt | grep ­v ‘^$’ > new_sample.txt

7) List the hidden files in current directory?
– ls ­a1 | grep “^.”

8) List the files in current directory sorted by size?
– ls ­l | grep ^­ | sort ­nr

9) Which obp command has a permanent allies?
When NValias need is:
In case system can not boot from primary disk and it is needed to make another boot disk to access the data ,
nvalias command is used.
nvalias command makes the device alias and assigns an alternate name to a physical disk. Physical address of
target disk is required which can be had by show­disk command on ok>.
ok> nvalias disk7 /iommu@f,e0000000/sbus@f,e0001000/dma@3,81000/esp@3,80000/sd2,0
The new aliased disk can be named as boot disk or can be used for booting by referring its name
ok> setenv boot­device disk7

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ok>reset
or
ok> boot disk7

10) What could be the reason and what files has to be checked to fix this and which log file we
have to refer to know more details about the problem.
The user is exisitng in the /etc/passwd file and the shell is also properly configured and there is no specific error
messages in the /var/adm/messages file.

11) How to find 32 or 64 bit system instances of OS?
On a 32­bit system, the two­part kernel is located in the directory /platform/?uname ­m?/kernel.
On a 64­bit system, the two­part kernel is located in the directory/platform/?uname ­m?/kernel/sparcv9
________________________________________
isainfo ­b
the above command displays whether the processor is 32/64 bit

12) How to configure mail server in sun solaris?
1. Install the sendmail recent package..
2. in /etc/mail/sendmail.cf file configure for localhost,mail server and domain name.
3. Restart the sendmail service…
that’s it .. getback to me if having any more doubt.

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13) How can we find RAM size in solaris server?
#prtdiag command will help you to find the RAM size.

14) How many cpus we can connect to a spark machine in Solaris?
Sun Fire 15K can have upto max of 106 processors

15) What is the big difference between /dev/dsk and /dev/rdsk
In Solaris whenever you create a new slice using format command a raw physical slice or a Raw Device will be
created which is addressed as /dev/rdsk/c#d#s# where # is the number for slice.
After formatting it with newfs command the slice will be addressed as /dev/dsk/c#d#s# which can now be used
for mounting.
eg. newfs /dev/rdsk/c0d0s4
mkdir /oracle
mount /dev/dsk/c0d0s4 /oracle
After mounting /dev/dsk/c#d#s# is called as Block Device
/dev actually contains logical device names which are links (Shortcuts in windows terminology) to actual physical
devices in /devices directory.

16) Why we use / for mount any filesystem?
/ represents the top most level of the OE directory hierarchy, therefore other sub directories have to be mounted
under /
17) You logged into the system using telnet.
As a system administrator, how would you figure out the system transaction is slow between the system you
logged into and from the system you did telnet login?
you can simply use the time command on both systems.! For example:
time <>
out put will be like..
real 0m2.009s
user 0m0.000s
sys 0m0.000s
So, in actuality, It took a total of 2.009 seconds of my time to watch this command complete. But, as you can see,
it used virtually no processing time.
For small transcation you may not find the much difference(sometimes no diff)

18) How to install win xp after installing solaris for dual booting.
I think “if you first installed Solaris then try to install XP, XP will overwrite the Solaris.Becoz XP is single boot, It
is better to install XP first then install Solaris..”
Simple funda is First install Workstation then install Servers..
19) What is difference between Process and Daemon in Solaris?
A ‘daemon’ is a software process that runs in the background (continuously) and provides the service to client
upon request. For example named is a daemon. When requested it will provide DNS service. Other examples are:
xinetd (it is a super­daemon, it is responsible for invoking other Internet servers when they are needed)
inetd (same as xinetd, but with limited configuration options)
sendmail/postfix (to send/route email)
Apache/httpd (web server)
‘server process’ run runs one time, when called by a daemon. Once done it will stop. For example telnetd
(in.telnetd) or ftpd called from xinetd/inetd daemon . By calling server process from daemon you can save the
load and memory. Use a server process for small services such as ftpd, telnetd

20) What is after the VTOC on the root filesystem?
A solaris disk has an area called volume table of contents(VTOC) that stores information about disk structure and
organization.
________________________________________
VTOC stores in 0th sector
After VTOC Boot Block is there from (1­15) sector

21) How would you find out what kernel parameter SHMMAX is set to by one command?
using command call ndd
22) What would a XIR signal do to a server and why would it be used?
XIR signal used by reset command in solaris.
reset (1M) allows you to reset one or more domains in one of two ways: reset the hardware to a clean state or send
an externally initiated reset (XIR) signal. The default is to reset the hardware to a clean state. You will receive an
error if the virtual keyswitch is in the secure position. An optional confirmation prompt is given by default. Refer
to Chapter 6 in the System Management Services (SMS) 1.2 Administrator Guide for the Sun Fire 15K/12K
Systems for more information.
An XIR signal (reset ­x ) also traps to low­level domain software (OpenBoot PROM or kadb ), which retains
control of the software. The domain must be rebooted manually.

23) What is the difference between a probe­scsi and a probe­scsi­all?
Both these commands are run at obp (open boot Prom) probe­scsi will probe the internal scsi and probe­scsi­all
will probe both internal and external scsi.
Maybe not the best explanation but not bad…
________________________________________
The probe­scsi command communicates with all SCSI devices connected to on­board SCSI controllers.
The probe­scsi­all command additionally accesses devices connected to any host adapters installed in PCI slots.

24) What does reboot ?r do?
reboot ­r (reconfigure the /dev & /devices)
25) How would you find out what version of Solaris is currently running?
Run the command showrev. There’s a man page on showrev and there are switches to help you do whatever
you’re trying to do
________________________________________
Uname ­r is the command to know the version of the OS and uname ­s for the type of OS.
26) How do you determin which Run Level the sytem is running
u can findout currently system run level
who ­r

27) What are the different phases in boot process
Boot phases of Solaris Operating Environment are:
1.boot PROM
2.boot programs like bootblk,ufsboot
3.kernel initialization like loading modules
4. init phase

28) How will you add a virtual IP address to a server in Solaris. Given the interface qe0 and IP 10.10.1.150
Syntax:
#ifconfig qe0:1 plumb
# ifconfig qe0:1 10.10.1.150 up
where “qe0” is an interface (e.g., le0) and N is a number between 1 and
. Removing the pseudo interface and associated address is done
with “ifconfig qe0:1 10.10.1.150 down”.
As with physical interfaces, all you need to do is make the
appropriate /etc/hostname.qe0:X file.

29) How to restore a corrupted file system or trouble shoot bad super blocks for a FS c0t2d0s5
get into single user mode from ok prompt by using the command below.
boot ­s
use the newfs command to check the number of back ups for the superblock used.
use newfs ­N to display the value for /dev/dsk/c1t1d0s0 as below.
newfs ­N /dev/dsk/c1t1d0s0
use fsck command to fix the superblocks as below
fsck ­F ufs ­o b=75680 /dev/rdsk/c1t1d0s0
Now the blocks are replaced get to multiuser mode using init 3
server should boot fine.

30) What is the command can reconfigure devices with out reboot?
Either you can use

1.devfsadm
single command solaris 8 on wards in the backward we have to use
1.drvconfig
2.diskor tape..(Device type)
3. devlinks
then the device will configure properly.

31) What does this file /etc/path_to_inst contain and what is the importance of this file
/etc/path_to_inst contains each device, its instance name and number along with its physical name.

32) How do you check the cron jobs of other users, (as a super user)
The above would work. You could also run:
crontab ­l Username

33) What is sticky bit in Solaris?
If a directory is writable and has sticky bit is set, files within directory removed or renamed only if one or more
following is true:
– The user owns the file
– The user owns the directory
– The file writable by the User

– The user is “root”
chmod 1777 project_dir
The sticky bit is displayed as the letter t in the execute field for ‘others’.
________________________________________
Sticky Bit is a permission bit that protects the files with in a Directory. If the directory has sticky bit set, a file can
be deleted by the owner of the file, the owner of the directory or root.
This Prevents a user from deleting other users files from public directories .

34) What is the command for seeing a long listing of all the processes running on your unix box?
ps ,
ps ­aux ,
ps ­ef ,
top
35) What field will cause the message Your password has expired to be displayed to the user?
The /etc/shadow file contains following fields.Login­id : Which indicates the username of that perticular
user.Passwd : It Contains encrypted password.Lastchg : Indicates the number of days between 1­JAN­1970 and
last password modification date.Min : Contains minimum no of days required between password changes.Max :
Contains the maximum no of days the password is valid before the user’s prompted to enter a password at
login.Warn : Contains the number of days the user is warn before the password expires.Inactive : Contains the

number of inactive days allowed for that user before the user’s account is locked. Expire : contains the date when
the user account expires once exceeded. The user can no longer log in also it will display the message “Your
password has been expired”.

36) What command can you use to display all of your groups?
On AIX You can use
groups ­To Display full list
id ­G – To display group id number
On Solaris you can use
groups – To display full list
id ­a – To display full list of groups with group id numbers

37) What command will install the patches: 123456­01 and 123457­01 if both are located in the /just.patches
directory?
Check man for “patchadd”…
:)eNJOY
38) The NVRAM is also soldered to the main logic board or motherboard.
It is a pluggable IC with yellow sticker on it, can be easily replaceble when it goes wrong.

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39) What software install group do you need to select in order to load the compilers?
Devloper
________________________________________
sunwcprog
40) How many different kill signals are there?
47

41) Give the command that will display your default boot device.
the command would be
eeprom boot­device & not printenv as suggested

42) The hardware­level user interface that you see before the operating system has been started is called:
open boot

43) Partition sizes can be set manually or from what configuration?
/etc/format.dat

44) What file controls global variables for system wide values for the Bourne Shell?
/etc/profile

45) What file contains the location of the namespace configuration textfiles such as hosts.rev, named.local, etc..?
/etc/named.conf

46) Which of the following commands can tell you whether packets are being delayed or dropped on your
network?
spray

47) What command enables a printer?
enable

48) In order to save a template in /etc/format.dat, what two steps must occur?
name & save

49) What command will display the VTOC for disk c0t0d0s0?
prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c0t0d0s0
________________________________________
PRTVTOC

50) Among the applications below, which one is not a client/server application?
cron

51) When using the admintool, the membership list for groups is separated by what?
commas

52) What file do you put the umask setting in?
The UMASK value for bourne and korn shell users can be modified system wide by editing the “umask” entry in
the “/etc/profile” file. To change the default UMASK for the C shell, modify the UMASK variable in
“/etc/default/login” file.

53) What flag used with patchadd will prevent a later back out by preventing patchadd from backing up files? If
this flag is used, the patch cannot be removed.
You have to use the option “d” along with th patchadd commnad.
patchadd ­d

54) Which of the following can be an appropriate name for a cluster?
SUNWadm

55) What file controls system wide password aging?
/etc/shadow

56) What SPARC emergency keyboard sequence will take the system to the ok prompt (forth monitor) but will
send output to TTYA?
stop+A

57) Which NFS daemons are found on the NFS server?
nfsd
mountd
lockd
statd
nfslogd
These five daemons will be in NFS server.
statd and lockd will be in NFS client too.

58) Where are the templates stored that are copied into the users home directories for their personal
customizations?
/etc/skel

59) What is “Piping” solaris?
piping:­ sending the output of a command to the input of another is called piping.
some examples are:
$cal | wc
will output total line’s,word’s and character’s
$cal | wc | wc
will output total line’s,word’s and character’s
A unix pipe provides a one­way flow of data.
For example, if a Unix users issues the command
$who | sort |lpr
then the Unix shell would create three processes with two pipes between them:
A pipe can be explicitly created in Unix using the pipe system call. Two file descriptors are returned–fildes[0] and
fildes[1], and they are both open for reading and writing. A read from fildes[0] accesses the data written to
fildes[1] on a first­in­first­out (FIFO) basis and a read from fildes[1] accesses the data written to fildes[0] also on
a FIFO basis.
When a pipe is used in a Unix command line, the first process is assumed to be writing to stdout and the second is
assumed to be reading from stdin. So, it is common practice to assign the pipe write device descriptor to stdout in
the first process and assign the pipe read device descriptor to stdin in the second process. This is elaborated
below in the discussion of multiple command pipelines.

60) How do we know how many LAN cards we have in server?
Just Type in the following command at prompt#ifconfig ­a.That shall give the LAN Cards as well as total Physical
and Logical IP Addresses
dmesg – It displays all configured items on systems.

61) How can i disable STOP+A utility on SUN machines, which brings system into OK> prompt?
in /etc/system set abort_enable=0 will disable STOP­A
________________________________________There are several ways to disable “STOP­A”
(1)Edit the /etc/default/kbd file
KEYBOARD_ABORT=disable
(2)Use the “kbd ­a disable” command
(3) Edit /etc/system file
set abort_enable = 0

62) Consider the following crontab entry: ?59 23 13 * 5 /wipe.disk? What time will this cronjob run?
That means: on Black Friday, your hard drive will get wiped out.
==> (on 13th and Friday) 23:59, /wipe.disk will be
running________________________________________If the 13’th Day of the month is Friday, the job
will run. (week day starts from Sunday day 1).

63) What is the command to do an interactive boot from the ok prompt?
Answer: The Interactive Boot Process:
At the ok prompt, type boot ­a and press Enter. The boot program prompts you interactively
Answer 2:
After Power on,
press,
STOP+A
at the ok prompt type,
ok>boot ­a

64) Display the all files recursively with path under current directory ?
– find . ­depth ­print